Trebnje (tower, court, manor)

14th century

Already in 1163 an ancient parish is indirectly attested in Trebnje and also market in 1351 but a court is not mentioned until 1386 as tuern ze Treuen and later in 1436 as turn zu Trefen mit dem purkchstal vnd dem pawhof. According to Valvasor, the court was built by some count of Trebnje from Carinthia around year 1000, but this information is questionable. Because counts of Trebnje handed over their on foundations of old Carolingian court built and demolished in 15th century castle north from Villach to Aquilea already in 1163 and are after only sporadically mentioned until the end of 14th century. From this point of view Vlricus de Treuen mentioned as a witness without any predicate in some document from Gornji Grad could only be ministerial of Aquilea from our court, who accompanied parson Albert from Trebnje on the way to Gornji Grad and not a count from once noble family named after a castle from Carinthia.

Among latter owners of the manor Valvasor lists counts of Ortenburg, counts of Celje and Habsburg family and in the new era lords of Svibno, Gallenbergs and Sauers. But it is already a time when preserved documents bare witness of ownership history. Owners from the beginning of 17th century were: in 1601 Gabrijel Križanič, in 1652 Jurij Jankovič, in 1679 Wolf Konrad Jankovič, in 1685 Matej Kowatschitsch noble Schmiedhofen, toll collector in provincial tollhouse in Jesenice and in empirial tollhouse in Col - emperor Leopold I. raised him to nobility and granted him a special grace so he could take a family name of Kouatschich von Schmidhofen. Monastery from Stična bought the monastery in 1699 and in 1731 Jankovič family bought the manor of the monastery. In 1734 Jožef Mihael noble Wallensberg becomes the owner of the manor who is in 1767 followed by his son Filip. Janez Nepomuk Baraga buys the estate in 1799 and is followed by his son Friderik Baraga in 1812. Friderik's brother in law Jožek Gressel becomes the owner in 1824 and leaves the estate to his wife Amalija in 1842. They're followed by their son Karel Gressel in 1860 and then his widow Marija in 1863. In 1896 it's owner was Matija Hočevar, postal master in Velike Lašče in merchant from Ljubljana Franc Hreh. Before the last war the owner was dr. ing. Evgen Šoulavy from Checz republic and after the war residents were stationed in the manor. Even nowadays social appartments are in the manor.

Mrs.Rajčevič - a neigbour, living next to the manor - has told me that the manor has been for sale on some time now and that it already has one bad sale in his near history. It's present owner - heiress, living in Italy, with 4 children has set a price to high for a foreign buyer (supposedly from UK). Residents nearby have high hopes that the manor will be soon sold and managed because in it's current state spoils the image of the surrounding area. The manor still waits for the owner who would take it to see better times again.

It is not rare on state-owned property where social housings are located that we encounter great amazement at the arrival of visitors who are only interested in cultural heritage. Unpleasant feeling imposed by the residents to the visitors deters them from research of interior. As this manor was such case I present the description of interion which was written by Stopar.

Manor of Trebnje, built on partially levelled terrace above Temenica river had a shape of masoned unfortified tower but the details of its original design are not known. Present day castle building is composed of four single storeyed residential wings surrounding rectangular inner courtyard. Castle is reinforced with towers on three of its corners.
At the stone staircase a statue of lion from Antiquity is located which were very fashionable once. Trebnje was once also a Roman outpost Preatorium Latobicorum. Antiquity lions can also be found in Slovenia at »Gozdni dvor« in Celje, Komenda in Polzela and »Stari grad pri Pobočju« near Kostanjevica and maybe some other place.

Entrance into the castle interior is through spacious, crest-vaulted hall with Baroque portals on the left and on the right side, which leads us to inner courtyard surrounded by arcades. Arcades on its left, northern side are six-axial but only ground-level high and supported by pillars - through fourth, somewhat higher arc we go to a staircase leading to the first floor. On the courtyard side on the first floor three windows are located with profiled cornices and shelves.
Also six-axial are the arcades of rear, eastern wing. On the ground floor they are again leaning on strong masoned pillars but they are surprisingly far distanced from each other so the arcs between them are very stifled and not semicircular. They are walled in in its southern part with windows in fillings. On the first floor arcades are leaning on round, stone columns standing on parapet masoned fence with profiled shelves. Columns are equally spaced as pillars below.
In the south wing arcades are walled in on both floors. The only difference is that arcs in the firs floor are shaped as blends but the round columns are visible. Again windows are inside the fillings.
Widely spaced pillars - also partially walled in - are also found at the entrance, west wing of the manor. On the first floor behind six-partial widely opened arcs a spacious hallway with levelled ceiling.

Medieval elements could not yet be found on the manor but when probing south from the manor the remains of 2,36m thick foundations of some walls were found and 10m wide ditch on the east side.

Stopar, Ivan, Dr.: "Grajske stavbe v osrednji Sloveniji - III. Dolenjska(Porečje Temenice in Mirne),Viharnik, Ljubljana, 2002, ISBN 961-6057-34-0
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GPS coordinates:
N 45° 54.241' E 15° 00.341'


Entrance to "castle park" or garden from west
Western facade to which a road is leading from west and a path with stairs from north
At staircase landing from the top a pedestal with fairly damaged statue of marble Antiquity lion is located
Renaissance entrance portal is in nine axial wing, equiped with rectangular groove for drawbridge and above it a pier leaning on Renaissance profiled console covered with tent-like roof; empty heraldic plates are covered by flowers
Doorposts are original, massive, from oak wood, enclosed in hammered metal plates and strong rivets and at the same time equiped with massive escape doors
Northern facade of the manor; on the left at the end of 1990s reconstructed round tower and on the right still original rectangular tower
On the east side of the manor confined by tower like building on southeast side nothing special is observed
Trebnje manor in Valvasor's Topographia, 1679; difference between depicted and present manor is that nowadays an imposing tower near south wing is missing and also rectangular corner southwestern tower is not standing anymore